(CCC ATHENES REFERENCE A298)

PAVEMENT CONSTRUCTION.

1.      SOURCES OF AGGREGATES FOR PAVING LAYERS.

2.      TESTING OF AGGREGATES.

3.      APPROVAL & INSPECTION OF AGGREGATES.

4.      STORAGE OF AGGREGATES.

5.      TIDYING -UP OF QUARRY AREA.

6.       GRANULAR SUB -  BASE.

GRANULAR SUB -  BASE.

MATERIALS.

Granular sub base material for road sub base shall consist of hard ,durable natural / screened gravel or crushed stone,& shall be free from clay balls or other deleterious substances. Granular sub base shall be well graded & lie within the grading envelope stated below TABLE I when tested in accordance with BS 1377: Part 2 : Test 9.2.  The material shall have a minimum C.B.R. of 30% at 95% of maximum dry density & should comply with ( TABLE II revelent tests & standards ).organic impurities ( BS1377  Part 3 Method 3 shall not exceed 0.2% ).

Table I

sieve size

% passing

          63  mm

100

37.5

85 - 100

9.5

40 - 85

4.75

25 - 45

          600 um

8 - 25

075

0 - 10

Construction

Road base material shall be delivered to the roadbed as uniform mixture & shall be spread in layers or windrows. Segregation shall be avoided & the sub base shall be free from pockets of coarse or fine materials. The compacted thickness of road sub base layer not exceeding 150 mm to the required grade & cross section. Particle size analysis of soils for sieve analysis of fine & coarse aggregate shall be carried out in accordance with BS1377:PART 2:TEST 9.2.

revelent tests & standards

TABLE II

TEST

STANDARD

LIMIT

Sampling

ASTM D75

-

Los Angeles Abrasion

ASTM C-131 ORC-535

30%  Max.

Soundness ( MgSO3  Solution -5cycles)

ASTM C88

12%  Max

Liquid Limit

BS1377 Part2 Test4.5

35%  Max

Plasticity Index

BS1377 Part2 Test 5

6       Max

Compaction Test (Modified Proctor )

BS1377 Part4 Method 3.6

-

C.B.R. at 95% of Modified Proctor Density(96 hour soaked)

BS 1377 Part 4 Test 7

30%  Min.

Field density

BS 1377 Part 9 Test 2.2

95%  Min. MDD

Linear Shrinkage

BS 1377 Part 2 Method 6.5

03%  Max.

Sulphate Content (Acid soluble)

BS 812 Part 118

0.5% Max.

Chloride content (Acid soluble)

BS 812 Part 117

01%  Max.

Minimum Test Requirements

One sample every 3000 M3 or parts of shall be tested for grading Plasticity Index, Max. Dry Density, CBR & Loss by Abrasion. Three onsite Density test shall be made every unit of granular sub-base laid ( one unit being 1500 M2),or as directed by the engineer.

 

 

Aggregate road base description.

 

Aggregate road base material.

1.       All aggregate Road base material shall be free from dirt, shale or other deleterious matter & shall be of such quality that it will bind readily to form a stable aggregate road base.

2.       Aggregate road base shall consists of uniform mixtures of gravel & / or crushed gravel with sand, silt & clay, conforming to the specified gradation limits.

3.       The gradation limits  when tested in accordance with BS 1377 Part 2 Test 9.2 shall be as table I.

Table I

sieve size

% passing

          50  mm

100

37.5

70 - 100

28

55 - 85

20

50 - 80

10

40 - 70

5

30 - 60

2.36

20 - 50

         425 uM

10 - 30

75

5 - 15

4.       the REQUIREMENTS for Aggregate road base  are as in table ii :-

TABLE II

TESTS

STANDARDS

LIMITS

1.       Sampling

ASTM D75

-

2.       Liquid Limit

BS1377 Part2 Test4.5

25%  Max

3.       Plasticity Index

BS1377 Part2 Test 5

06     Max

4.       Sand Equivalent

ASTM D - 2419

40%  Min.

5.       Los Angeles Abrasion

ASTM C-131 ORC-535

30%  Max.

6.       Flakiness Index (Coarse Aggregate)

BS812 Part 105.1

35%  Max.

7.       Elongation Index ( Coarse Aggregate)

BS812 Part 105.2

35%  Max.

8.       Soundness ( MgSO3  Solution -5cycles)

ASTM C88

12%  Max

9.       Organic Impurities

BS1377 Part3 Method 3

0.2%  Max.

10.   Acid soluble Chloride- Combined Agg.

BS 812 Part 117

01% Max.

11.   Acid soluble Sulphate - Combined Agg.

BS 812 Part 118

0.5% Max.

12.   Max. Dry Density

BS 1377 Part 4 Test 3.6

2% gr/cc Min.

13.   C.B.R. on Remolded samples after 4 days soaking at 100% of the max. Dry density.

BS 1377 Part 4 Test 7

80%  Min.

 

5.       Minimum Test Requirements,

i.  .One sample every 1000 m3  or part of as directed by the Engineer shall be tested for Grading ,Plasticity Index ,Sand Equivalent, Maximum Dry Density, C.B.R. & Loss of Abrasion.

ii .Three in-situ Density tests shall be made per unit ( 900 m2 ) of aggregate                           road base or as directed by the Engineer.

6.       Aggregate Road base shall be spread on the approved sub grade in layers not more than 150 mm in compacted depth.

 

 

WET- MIX MACADAM ROAD BASE ,DESCRIPTION.

 

Aggregate road base material.

1.       All aggregate road base material shall consist of high quality crushed aggregate.

2.       The coarse aggregate shall consist of crushed rock ( each particle shall have a minimum of one crushed face-DCL test method DM 301 )& the fine aggregate shall be crushed rock or naturally occurring material.

3.       The gradation limits  when tested in accordance with BS 1377 Part 2 Method 9.2 or 9.3 shall be as table I.

Table I

sieve size

% passing

          50  mm

100

37.5

95 - 100

20

60 - 80

10

40 - 60

5

25 - 40

2.36

15 - 30

         600 uM

8 - 22

63

2 - 8

4.       The gradation shall be adjusted as required or as directed by the Engineer within the above limits to ensure the mix has adequate binding properties.

5.       the REQUIREMENTS for Wet-mix road base material shall have physical properties which do not exceed the values in table ii :-

TABLE II

TESTS

STANDARDS

LIMITS

1.       Sampling

ASTM D75

-

2.       Liquid Limit

BS1377 Part2 Test4.5

25%  Max.

3.       Linear Shrinkage

BS 1377 Part2 Method6.5

03%  Max.

4.       Plasticity Index

BS1377 Part2 Test 5

06     Max.

5.       Aggregate Crushing Value

BS 812 Part 110

25%  Max.

6.       Water Absorption

ASTM C128/C127

02%  Max.

7.       Flakiness Index (Coarse Aggregate)

BS812 Part 105.1

30%  Max.

8.       Elongation Index ( Coarse Aggregate)

BS812 Part 105.2

30%  Max.

9.       Lo Angeles Abrasion Loss

ASTM C131 or C535

30%  Max 

10.   Soundness  ( MgSO3  Solution -5cycles)

ASTM C88

12%  Max

11.   Organic Impurities

BS1377 Part3 Method 3

0.2%  Max.

12.   Chloride Content( Acid soluble)

BS 812 Part 117

01% Max.

13.   Sulphate Content ( Acid soluble)

BS 812 Part 118

0.5% Max.

14.   Sand Equivalent

ASTM D - 2419

45    Min.

 

5.       Minimum Test Requirements,

i.  .One sample every 1000 m3  or part of as directed by the Engineer shall be tested for Grading ,Plasticity Index ,Sand Equivalent, Maximum Dry Density, C.B.R. & Loss of Abrasion.

ii .Three in-situ Density tests shall be made per unit ( 750 m2 ) of each layer of carriageway  & three insitu density tests per unit (450 linear meters) of shoulder or as directed by the Engineer.

Iii. Where directed by the engineer a sieve analysis shall be carried out on the  material recovered from 5 consecutive field density tests. Where this sieve analysis shows oversize material content of 10% or greater the area of construction will be removed & the source of the material rejected until further notice. Other places of work using material from the same source shall be tested in a similar manner.

6.       Wet Mix Macadam Road base shall be laid & compacted in layers maximum thickness of 150 mm except where otherwise specified.

 

 

BITUMINOUS PAVING COURSES, DESCRIPTION

 

1.       THIS WORK SHALL CONSIST OF THE CONSTRUCTION OF THE FOLLOWING HOT MIX BITUMINOUS COURSES WHICH SHALL BE EITHER ASPHALTIC CONCRETE OR DENSE BITUMEN  MACADAM.

2.       BITUMINOUS PAVING COURSES SHALL CONSIST OF COARSE AGGREGATES, FINE AGGREGATES, FILLER , MATERIAL & BITUMEN BINDER.

course aggregates for bituminous paving course.

 

1.       Coarse aggregates which are the material retained on a 4.75 mm sieve, shall consist of crushed rock or crushed gravel. It shall be clean, hard, tough, durable & sound,& shall be of uniform quality & free from decomposed stone, shale, shale, clay, lumps & other deleterious substances.

2.       Crushed gravel for use as course aggregate shall consist of the product obtained by crushing material that has first been screened in such a manner that not less than 90%  of the material to be crushed is retained on an ASTM 3/8.

3.       Percentages of partially crushed faces with minimum one crushed face shall be 100% by wt. of each (stockpile) of aggregates. In addition at least 85% by wt. Of each separate stockpile of aggregate shall have all faces crushed. This 85% value may be reduced to 50% for certain categories of road where indicated on the drawings.( crushed face determination shall be as per DCL Test Method DM 300 & 301.

4.       the REQUIREMENTS for the properties of COARSE AGGREGATE  shall  comply with the following values in TABLE I :-

 

TABLE I

TESTS

STANDARDS

LIMITS

1.       Sampling

ASTM D75

-

2.       Los Angeles Abrasion Loss               Base Course & Binder Course         Wearing Course

ASTM C131 or C535

 

30%  Max.

25%  Max.

3.       Aggregate Crushing Value                Base Course & Binder Course         Wearing Course

BS 812 Part 110

 

25%  Max.

20%  Max.

4.       Soundness  ( MgSO3)

ASTM C88

10%  Max.

5.       Acid soluble Chloride

BS 812 Part 117

0.1% Max.

6.       Acid soluble Sulphate

BS 812 Part 118

0.5% Max.

7.       Flakiness Index                                 Base Course & Binder Course         Wearing Course

BS812 Part 105.1

 

30%  Max.

25%  Max.

8.       Elongation Index                               Base Course & Binder Course         Wearing Course

BS812 Part 105.2

 

30%  Max.

25%  Max.

9.       Water Absorption

ASTM C128/C127

02%  Max.

 

  

FINE AGGREGATE FOR BITUMINOUS PAVING COURSE.

 

1.       Fine aggregates shall consist of the material passing a 4.75 mm sieve.

2.       Fine aggregate including filler shall be obtained from 100% crushed gravel or crushed rock pre-screened to exclude natural uncrushed fine material or weathered unsound fines. The use of dune sand shall not be permitted.

3.       THE REQUIREMENTS for the properties of  Fine aggregates shall which comply with the following values in TABLE II :-

 

TABLE II

TESTS

STANDARDS

LIMITS

1.       Sampling

ASTM D75

-

2.       Soundness  ( MgSO3  )

ASTM C88

10%  Max

3.       Plasticity Index

BS1377 Part2 Test 5

Non - Plastic

4.       Acid soluble Chloride

BS 812 Part 117

0.1% Max.

5.       Acid soluble Sulphate

BS 812 Part 118

0.5% Max.

6.       Organic Impurities

ASTM C 40

Color of supernatant liquid shall be lighter than std color solution

7.       Water Absorption

ASTM C128/C127

02.3%  Max.

 

MINERAL FILLER FOR BITUMINOUS PAVING COURSE.

1.       When the combined grading of the coarse & fine aggregates is deficient in material passing the ASTM No.200 sieve, mineral filler shall be added as approved by the engineer .

2.       mineral filler shall consist of finely ground particles of limestone or cement in accordance of ASTM D-242.It shall be thoroughly dry & free from organic substances & clay & meet the grading requirements following TABLE III :-

 

TABLE III

MINERAL FILLER

B.S. SIEVE

ASTM SIEVE SIZE

% WT. PASSING

600 uM

NO. 30

100

300

NO. 50

95 - 100

150

NO. 100

90 - 100

75

NO. 200

70 - 100

 

 

COMBINED AGGREGATE FOR BITUMINOUS PAVING COURSES.

1.       The Combined mineral aggregate shall meet the following physical requirement :-

 

TESTS

STANDARDS

LIMITS

Sand  Equivalent, determined after all processing except for addition of asphalt binder

ASTM D-2419

Min.

Plasticity Index

BS1377 Part2 Test 5

Non - Plastic

 

2.       When tested according to ASTM C-117 & ASTM C-136, the combined mineral aggregate shall confirm to table I for asphaltic concrete & tables 2,3& 4 for Dense Bitumen Macadam :-

 

TABLE 1-aggregate grading for asphaltic concrete

 

SIEVE SIZE

TOTAL % PASSING BY WT.

SQUARE OPENINGS

COURSE

COURSE

COURSE

ASTM

BASE

BINDER

WEARING

37.5 MM

100

 

 

25

80 - 100

100

100

19

62 - 92

80 - 100

86 - 100

12.5

-

63 - 85

69 - 87

9.5

45 - 75

57 - 77

58 - 78

4.75

30 - 55

40 - 60

40 -0 60

2.36

20 - 40

25 - 45

25 - 45

0.85

15 - 30

15 - 30

15 - 30

0.425

10 - 22

10 - 22

10 - 22

0.18

6 - 15

6 - 15

6 - 15

0.075

2 - 8

2 - 8

2 - 8

 

 

TABLE 2 - AGGREGATE GRADATION FOR DENSE BITUMEN MACADAM ROAD BASE.

 

B.S. TEST SIEVE

AGGREGATE, CRUSHED ROCK OR GRAVEL

MM

% BY WT. PASSING

50

100

37.5

95 - 100

28

70 - 94

14

56 - 76

6.3

44 - 60

3.35

32 - 46

0.300

7 - 21

0.075

2 - 8

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

TABLE 3  - AGGREGATE GRADATION FOR DENSE BITUMEN MACADAM BASE COURSE.

 

B.S.

AGGREGATE, CRUSHED ROCK OR GRAVEL

TEST SIEVE

% PASSING BY WT. FOR FINISHED THICKNESS OF BASE COURSE

MM

65 - 80 MM

50 - 60 MM

35 - 45 MM

50

100

-

-

37.5

95 - 100

100

-

28

70 - 94

90 - 100

100

20

-

71 - 95

95 - 100

14

56 - 76

58 - 82

65 - 85

10

-

-

52 - 72

6.3

44 - 60

44 - 60

39 - 55

3.35

32 - 46

32 - 46

32 - 46

0.300

7 - 21

7 - 21

7 - 21

0.075

2 - 8

2 - 8

2 - 8

 

TABLE 4  - AGGREGATE GRADATION FOR DENSE BITUMEN MACADAM WEARING COURSE.

 

B.S.

AGGREGATE, CRUSHED ROCK OR GRAVEL

TEST SIEVE

% PASSING BY WT. FOR FINISHED THICKNESS OF BASE COURSE

MM

65 - 80 MM

50 - 60 MM

35 - 45 MM

28

100

-

-

20

95 - 100

100

-

14

70 - 90

95 - 100

100

10

55 - 75

70 - 90

95 - 100

6.3

40 - 60

45 - 65

55 - 75

3.35

25 - 40

30 - 45

30 - 45

1.18

15 - 30

15 - 30

15 - 30

0.075

2 - 6

2 - 6

2 - 6

 

3.       The grading given in Table 1,2,3 & 4 represent the extreme limits which shall determine suitability of aggregate for use from all sources of supply. The aggregate as finally selected for use in the work shall have a grading within the limits designated in tables 1,2,3&4 as appropriate & for TABLE 1 may with the engineer agreement.

4.       The coarse aggregate shall show no detrimental amount of stripping when tested in accordance with ASTM D-1664 .The minimum value of non stripped area shall be 95 % .If stripping occurs ,the aggregate shall be rejected & an approved method of treatment specified to change the material from a hydrophilic to a hydrophobic state as directed by the engineer ,or an approved additives shall be used with the bituminous binder.